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  • Writer's pictureAsafo Flags

Ghana Independence: Evolution of Asafo Flags Pre & Post Colonial Influence


As Ghana celebrates its Independence Day on March 6th, we look into the context of pre-colonial and post-colonial flags through the lens of Independence. 


Let's start with a little history:


Asafo flags are colorful, handcrafted banners made by the Fante people of Ghana, particularly in the coastal regions around the towns of Ekumfi, Saltpond, Kormatse, Cape Coast and Elmina. These flags have a rich history and are traditionally associated with the Asafo military companies, which are community-based military units that played significant roles in warfare and defense among the Fante people.



Pre-Colonial Asafo Flags:

Before the colonial era, Asafo flags primarily represented the strength, unity, and prowess of the various Asafo companies. They often depicted symbols, animals, or scenes from Fante folklore and mythology, symbolizing bravery, protection, and cultural identity.


The materials used on pre-colonial Asafo flags were typically made from locally sourced materials such as cotton cloth, dyed with natural pigments from plants and minerals. They were hand-painted or embroidered with intricate designs and symbols.


These flags served not only as markers of military companies but also as expressions of communal identity and pride. They were displayed during ceremonies, rituals, and military events, asserting the authority and status of the Asafo companies within the community.



Colonial Era:

With the arrival of European colonial powers, particularly the Portuguese, Dutch, and British in the Gold Coast (modern-day Ghana), the Fante people and their cultural practices were influenced by colonial rule. 

Asafo companies continued to exist, but their roles and dynamics changed. Under colonial rule, the British authorities exerted control over the region, including the Asafo companies. As a result, some Asafo flags may have incorporated elements that reflected inclusion such as the British / Dutch canton and depicting European soldiers asserting power and resistance from colonial influence, such as anti-colonial symbols or motifs using Akan symbolism and Fante language.



Post-colonial Asafo flags: 

Despite the changes brought about by colonialism, Asafo flags remain an important cultural expression and symbol of Fante identity. 

While the traditional motifs and designs persisted, new elements were introduced to reflect the changing social and political landscape such as the incorporation of the Ghanaian canton after independence in 1957.


In the face of globalization and modernization, post-colonial Asafo flags still serve as symbols of cultural preservation and identity. They celebrate traditional Fante customs, rituals, and beliefs, reaffirming the importance of cultural heritage in the face of rapid social change while also contributing to the ongoing dialogue about identity, heritage, and the future of African art and culture.



Asafo Flag from the Fowler Museum, UCLA Collection

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